Arthroscopy (also called arthroscopic or keyhole surgery) is a surgical procedure that can be used to diagnose and treat various ankle disorders. The list of disorders treatable with arthroscopy is getting longer day-by-day; however, some of them are as follows:


Ankle Arthritis

The procedure of artificial ankylosis (also called arthrodesis or syndesis) is appropriate for most patients with the most severe forms of ankle arthritis. Using arthroscopic surgery, fusion can be done less invasively. The results of this operation will be equal to or even better than that of open surgery.


Ankle Fractures

Arthroscopic surgery can be used with open surgery techniques. They do this to ensure that the bones and cartilages are positioned properly. Moreover, doctors use arthroscopic surgery to observe cartilage damage during ankle repair surgery.


Ankle Instability

Ankle ligaments may be torn and cause instability in the joint. Surgery can restore these ligaments to their previous natural condition. Arthroscopic techniques can help solving ankle instability.


Anterior Ankle Impingement

An athletes' disease, it occurs when the bones and soft tissues of the anterior part of the ankle joint are inflamed. Symptoms include ankle pain and swelling. This condition can cause limitations in the ankle for bending upward. Walking up the slope will usually be painful for people with this condition. Osteophytes are diagnosed by X-ray imaging.



Scar tissue may grow in the ankle joint space. This will cause cramps and pain in the joint. This is called arthrofibrosis. Arthroscopic surgery can be used to diagnose the place the scar tissue is formed and to remove it.



Antibiotics alone cannot eliminate joint space infection. To treat infection, they usually perform an urgent surgery. This surgery can be done with arthroscopy.


Floating Objects

Cartilage, bone and scar tissue may freely float inside joint space and form floating object. These objects can cause pain and problems such as abnormal joint sounds and cracking. Moreover, locks of the ankle joint can also occur. Nevertheless, you should not worry because ankle arthroscopy can be used to find and eliminate these objects.


Osteochondrial Defects (OCD)

Parts of the ankle joint that their cartilage and bone have been injured. These often occur due to ankle injuries like sprained or fractured ankle. Common symptoms include pain and swelling in the ankle. Patients may hear the joints sounding off or experience their impingement. The diagnosis is done by a combination of physical examination and imaging.


Posterior Ankle Impingement

This condition occurs when the soft tissues at the posterior part of the ankle are inflamed. In this condition, bending the feet downward would be painful. Posterior ankle impingement is more common among dancers due to overuse of the joints.



Soft tissue covering of the ankle joint (synovial tissue) may inflame. Synovitis may be caused by injury or overuse and can cause pain and swelling. Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis can also cause synovitis. Ankle arthroscopy can be used to remove the inflamed tissue and to treat cases that have not been treated using non-surgical treatment procedures.


Unexplainable Ankle Symptoms

In some cases, patients experience symptoms that cannot be explained by diagnostic techniques. Arthroscopy provides the opportunity to see directly within the joint. The surgeon can then diagnose any potential problems and solve them using surgery.


Flat feet is a condition in which patients have their foot arches collapsed and the whole foot sole comes into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. The arches on the soles of the foot reduce the forces imposed on the body from the ground and do not allow the forces to be imposed on the body completely. However, in people with flat feet, great amounts of these forces to the body make difficulties to them. In the long-term, it can lead to continuous side effects on all the joints of the body, especially the spine.

The flat feet disorder is generally congenital and is known as ligamentous laxity. Ligamentous laxity in the soles of the foot causes the arch of the soles to disappear while standing. In addition, in not forming the arch of the foot, incomplete formation of one or two bones in the ankle and foot or congenital adhesions of them are also effective.

Most of the children between 1 and 5 years old suffer from flat feet. This is part of their natural feet growth, 95% of these children will grow natural arches in their soles, and the rest 5% will grow flat foot. In most cases, the cause of flat foot is loose joint between anklebones. In this condition, the ligaments that hold the bones together become loose and sprained when the baby puts his/her weight on his/her foot. As they grow and begin to walk, the soft tissues in the soles of their feet also tighten, causing the arch of the sole to form gradually.

When a child with flat foot stands, the sole arches of his/her feet disappear. However, when sitting or standing on the tip of his/her toes, the arch of the soles of the foot reappears to the vision. Parents or other family members often worry that the abnormal low distance between the children’s arches sole to the ground or having no arches will lead to permanent malformations or disabilities. In most cases, however, you need not to worry at all.

Hallux valgus (also called Bunion) is a bony protrusion, caused by joint replacement at the base of the big toe. Hallux valgus of the big toe often affects the inner part of the feet in the center of the big toe at the base of the foot. It can also affect the outer part of the big toe, as well. It occurs in both men and women but is more common in women. It sometimes shows its symptoms, and sometimes not. This is a progressive deformity and its treatment ways can include resting, changing your shoe size, using orthopedic insoles, taking medicines, injecting steroids or undergoing surgery.

While the exact cause is unknown, many believe that it is caused due to several factors including abnormal foot function and mechanics, like metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP joints) and genetic factors. This mostly occurs in young adults. Abnormal biomechanics can lead to instability caused by metatarsal phalanx disorder and muscle disorders that cause deformability.

The abnormal anatomy in the first MTP joints can expose a person to callus removal. One study shows that there is a significant genetic heritability of callus abnormalities among Caucasian Europeans.

Although shoes do not directly cause calluses or bumps, they certainly make the condition more painful and swollen. Other less common causes of this type of anomaly include injuries (sprain, fracture and nerve damage), neurological or muscular disorders (poliomyelitis, heart and dental diseases) and limb length discrepancy (one foot shorter than the other). The longer the organ, the more it will bend and rotate.

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