Flat foot is a condition in which patients lack standard arches in the foot. The arches on the soles of the foot reduce the forces imposed on the body from the ground and prevent from all the forces to enter the body. In people with flat feet, there is a great force imposed on the body due to lack of foot arches. This can cause gradual side effects on all joints of the body, especially the spine. The flat foot is generally congenital and is also known as ligamentum laxity. Ligamentum laxity in the soles of the foot cause the arch of the soles to disappear when standing up. Moreover, the lack of formation of one or two bones in the ankle and soles of the feet or their congenitally stickiness to each other is effective in the formation of arches of the feet.
Most children between the ages of 1 and 2 suffer from flat foot, which is part of the natural growth process of their feet. More than 2% of these children develop normal foot arches during their growth. However, the other 5% will still have flat foot. In most cases, the cause of flat foot is loose joints between the anklebones. In this situation, the ligaments that hold the bones together are loose and stretch when the child puts his weight on his foot. As they grow and start walking, the soft tissues in the soles of their feet also tighten, causing the arch of the soles to form gradually.
When a child having flat foot stands up, the arch of his/her toe disappears. But, when sitting or when standing on the tip of his/her toes, the arch of the soles of the foot reappears. Parents or other family members are often concerned that abnormal low height of the child's foot arch or its absence will lead to permanent deformities or disabilities. However, there is no worry regarding this.