Bunion (Hallux Valgus)
Hallux valgus (also called bunion) is a bony protrusion, caused by joint replacement at the base of the big toe. In most of the cases, it affects the inner side of the foot in the center of the big toe and at the base of it. It can also affect the outer side of the big toe. It happens in men and women but is more common in women.
Hallux valgus is sometimes accompanied by some symptoms, and sometimes not. It is a condition that can be called as a progressive deformity. In brief, its treatment methods include resting, receiving cryotherapy, shoe changing, using orthopedic insoles, taking medications, injecting steroid or undergoing surgery.
While the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be due to several factors, including abnormal foot function and anatomy, such as abnormal anatomy of initially common metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP joints) and genetic factors. Common causes of this disorder are more likely to occur in young adults; abnormal biomechanics can lead to instability caused by metatarsal phalanx and muscle disorders that cause deformability.
Abnormal anatomy in the first articular MTP can expose a person to callus degeneration. One study indicates that there is a significant genetic heritability of callus abnormalities among Caucasian Europeans.
Although shoes do not directly cause calluses or bumps, they certainly make swellings and the condition more painful. Other less common causes of this type of anomaly include injuries (stretching, fracture and nerve damage), muscular or neurological (poliomyelitis or heart and dental diseases) and limb length discrepancy (one leg shorter than the other). The longer the member, the more it will bend and rotate.